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Internet is a "Network of Networks" But more efficiently we can say, It is a network of computers or any web devices (like mobile, PDA’s, Handhelds... etc) connected to each other via cables, telephone lines, satellites etc. and sharing information between them.
In 1969, four defense computers in four different States of America are connected with each other ot share information and is headed by Tim Berners Lie and this net is called DAPPA (Defense Advance Research Projects Agency) net.
In 1973 eleven big computers of university’s of UTHA, MIT, Alaska Etc. were connected to this net and name changed to ARPA net.
In 1983 after evolution of BSD UNIX some more corporate companies are connected to this net. And from 1986 onwards this net comes under NSF (National Science Foundation) and name changes to NSFNET. After 1995 NSFNET was decommissioned and internet is no more under Govt. of America.
Working of Internet:
Computers can use Internet by accepting some rules of transmission called protocals. The main protocol used in Internet TCP/IP (Transaction control protocol and Internet protocol).
Some main Protocols are,
- SMTP - Simple mail Transfer Protocol
- POP - Post office Protocol
- HTTP - File Transfer Transfer Protocol
- FTP - File Transfer Protocol
- SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol
- PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol
- NNTP - Network news Transfer Protocol
The data transmission in Internet is like; the message or data file is broken into small pieces called pakets and sent over the net using protocols. Packets are the basic unit of measurement on the Internet
All access to the Internet must be through ISP’s(Internet Service Providers). There are three types of Internet connections
1)Shell Account - This is only text based Internet Account. This account does not allow graphic and media downloads.
2)SLIP & PPP Accounts - This account allows your computer to act as a Internet Host. This account allows direct e-mail, FTP. Telnet and running browser software. This one allows graphic and media download.
3)Dialup Networking - This account allows you to connect to Internet via telephone lines using Modem’s. These are the cheapest and slower connection types. The Modem speeds are measured in BPS(Bytes per Sec.) In these type ISDN(Integrated Services Digital Network) networks are some what faster networks. These are of two types.
1)PRI(Primary rate Interface),
2)BRI(Binary rate Interface).
The computers share the information mainly through web documents called Hypertext Documents. The main difference between ordinary text and hypertext is that, the hypertext is a combination of ordinary text, graphic content and media and is having links to navigate called hyperlinks between those documents.
These documents are written by using a language called HTML(Hypertext Markup Language).
To see hypertext documents you need special software called WEB BROWSER. Some of those browsers are Mosaic, Gozilla, Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Opera etc.
Web - A Collection of documents inter-linker by hyperlinks is called a web.
Browsing - A process of navigating among the documents is called browsing.
Website - A website is a combination of web documents of relevant information, that's runs, a web server.
Webserver - It is a program that processes the requests sent by the client using protocols(for e.g. HTTP).
URL - Universal recourse locater or simply website address.
E.g - www.neediff.com
- WWW - (World Wide Web) is a global hypertext system uses Internet as its Transmission medium.
- neediff - Host name or server name.
- Type of site. E.g. COM-Commercial, EDU-Educational, NET-Network, IN-India site Etc.
Typical Working of the Internet:
The following image shows how internet works.
Root Server System - The root server system is the way that an authoritative master list of all top-level domain names(such as com, net, org and individual country codes) is maintained and made available to all routers. The system consists of 13 file servers. The central or "A" server is operated by Network Solutions, Inc. the company that originally managed all domain name registration, and the master list of top-level domain(TLD) names is kept on the A server. On a daily basis, this list is replicated to 12 other geographically dispersed file servers that are maintained by an assortment of agencies.
Virtual Name Servers - Name servers translate domain names into numeric IP addresses that a computer can interpret. An IP address is a series of 4 numbers that looks something like this: 123.456.345.234. Name servers are usually identified in whois databases. For example, if you were to search a whois database for any site, you'd find our name servers listed. They'll be identified as ns.neediff.com and ns2.neediff.com.
Router - A router is a computer networking device that buffers and forwards data packets across an inter network toward their destinations, through a process known as routing.
ISP - An Internet service provider(abbr, ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services.
Host Server - Host server is the computer in which the website resides.
Web Development Tree:
Markup Languages vs Programming Languages vs Scripting Languages:
Programming Languages are are a set of instructions that describe what a computer needs to do under given conditions. E.g. Java, COBAL, C, C++... Etc.
Markup Language on the other hand, contain a set of instructions about a document which tell the computer how to display that document. E.g. HTML,XML.
Scripting Language (commonly called scripting programing languages or script languages) are computer programing languages that are typically interpreted and can be typed directly from a keybord. Scripts are often distinguished from programs, beacause programs are converted permanently into binary executable files(i.e., zeros and ones) before they are run. Scripts remain in their original form and are interpreted command-by-command each time they are run.
The scripting languages specifically used to provide custom functionality to dynamic web pages on the web are known as "Web Scripting Languages". E.g. PHP, Java Script, Ruby, Perl... Etc.